Especially as societies become more free/liberal and people have more of a choice, I find it curious that so many people around the world still choose to embrace the religions of conquerors. Christians and Muslims in particular have colonized, conquered, enslaved, and/or forcibly or coercively converted large parts of the Earth and many indigenous peoples over the last few thousand years. But still today Africans, Central and South Americans, South Asians, and Southeast Asians (and their descendents and diasporas around the world) in particular frequently convert to, and/or seem very passionate about, those religions. And as far as I can tell, they’re not always just paying lipservice to those religions (e.g., superficially following those religions in order to get some benefit or reward from the conquerors). So why do those people reject their native religions, or why don’t they follow more peaceful world religions?
To my clear, my complaint is about certain religions, not about God(s). A person can interact with God(s) either in a spiritual way without traditions or from within the conceptual frameworks of many large, old religions; it doesn’t have to happen within the framework of Christianity or Islam. Themes of violence, conquest, domination, superiority, etc. run deep/old especially in Christian and Islamic cultures. I think people should be wary and skeptical of those kinds of themes, and I want to point out that there are other major world traditions (e.g., Judaism, Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Bahai, Sikhism, Taoism, etc.) as well as local/indigenous traditions that either lack those themes or have them to a much lesser extent.
“Luminous, O monks, is the mind. And it is defiled by incoming defilements” (Pabhassara Sutta, AN 1.49-52).
“By effort and heedfulness, discipline and self-mastery, let the wise one make for himself an island which no flood can overwhelm” (Dhammapada 25).
One particularly useful type of meditation is visualizing a castle wall around the mind, or that the mind is on a high mountain (perhaps an inactive volcano) on a deserted island, or something similar. Outside the wall is the din of the dualistic world: sounds, sights, thoughts and feelings that have arisen automatically/karmically, etc. bombard the mind’s peacefulness. Inside the wall is completely silent and still, as close to a nirvanic state as possible. Especially in noisy, stressful environments, this meditation can be very soothing.
Monasteries and monks or nuns do have cultures: the robes and hair styles, the language, the books and media, the discipline about behavior, the vocations, the pasttimes, the food, the decor and furniture, the intellectual and mental rigor, etc.
Some people (like me) wish that lay cultures were more like monastic cultures, and don’t feel very comfortable in any lay culture, but we seem forever doomed to the minority.
Happy uposatha 🙂
Though people often confuse/conflate them, beauty and health are not the same. It is entirely possible that a very beautiful person has some health problem (e.g., high cholesterol, osteoporosis, etc.) that gives them chronic or extreme pain, shortens their life, etc., which they hide from the world.
There is a limited supply of (valuable) money, commodities, etc. in this world, and most of it is concentrated among wealthy nations, corporations, and billionaire individuals who often do not work as long or hard as people in poorer regions or nations. If “trickle-down economics” works (as Republicans in the US often claim), why are there poor people and nations in the world? Wealthy people can’t be counted on to reliably share their wealth or help others.
Stephen Hawking, one of the most brilliant physicists ever to have lived, used to publicly say this every year or two, because it is perhaps the most important thing humanity should be doing but is only barely/slowly doing. Now that he is gone, I’ll repeat it: for the survival of our species, humans really need to leave this tiny, fragile little planet as quickly as possible. At national and global levels, instead of putting resources into fighting with each other and building things on this planet, we should be focusing on building space stations, fast ships, and colonies on other planets and in other solar systems. Currently, our entire species could be wiped out by global warming, over-population, nuclear war, one large epidemic, asteroid, solar flare, and on and on. We need to go and spread out, now.
Similar to my questions about mindstreams, regarding the gandhabba (the mind between lives), here are several questions about which I have not yet been able to find very good answers:
- How long can a gandhabba live, and is there anything that can destroy or repel it?
- Does a gandhabba rely on a body for any reason (e.g., for nourishment)?
- How far or fast can a gandhabba travel?
- What can a gandhabba see or know about the world and its new parents?
- What cognitive capabilities (e.g., what kinds of thoughts and feelings) does a gandhabba have?
- If a gandhabba wants to join with a new baby’s body while two humans are having sex, how does it know what to do in order to combine with microscopic egg and sperm cells?
- If it is possible, as some Buddhists believe, for a previously human gandhabba to be reborn as an animal, how does it adjust itself to a non-human body, and is anything gained or lost in that process?
- If a gandhabba is a citta-santana (citta-stream), and if that is the only way in which past life memories are preserved across bodies, why do people sometimes claim to remember non-citta (i.e., vinnana and manas, which supposedly die with one’s body) things about past lives, like how something looked in the past (eye consciousness is vinnana)?
- Is it better to conceive a baby near uposatha days, or near a Buddhist temple, because there might be more virtuous gandhabbas present on those days or in that place?
If, as I understand Mahayana-based Buddhisms to teach, we are all really one big monistic/unified Mind/Being, which is supposedly happier as Itself than as a suffering human, why doesn’t one person’s becoming enlightened cause everyone to become enlightened? When the Mind learns of its delusion from one person (e.g., Gautama Buddha), why doesn’t It correct Itself and stop manifesting this world?
“Mind precedes all mental states. Mind is their chief; they are all mind-wrought” (Dhammapada 1, Acharya Buddharakkhita translation).
“Phenomena are preceded by the heart, ruled by the heart, made of the heart” (Dhammapada 1, Thanissaro Bhikkhu translation).
Here are three different ways of interpreting that famous first line of the Dhammapada:
- (A possibly animist or creationist interpretation:) There apparently exists an outside world independent of my mind, and the arrangements or configurations of most/all things in that world apparently result from the activities of human and non-human minds. For example, my house exists because many people in the past have thought that humans should live in houses for various reasons (protection from weather, animals, thieves, etc.); thought of ways to construct and sell a house in the climate, society, etc. where I live; and then constructed it. How far out/back you want to abstract this idea to nature or the universe is up to you. The Buddha didn’t offer a view about the origins of the universe.
- (A constructivist/phenomenological interpretation popular among Western Theravadists today:) Though there probably exists an outside world independent of our minds, no one can see it directly; we can each see only our own mind. Everything we see is a mind-state, a construction of our body-mind complex – mental output based on sensory input. When you think you’re seeing yourself or a world out there, all you’re really seeing are poorly measured, heavily subjectively biased mental constructs/fabrications of how the self or world might be. The only way to maybe see absolute reality is to remove one’s subjective biases through meditation and simple/ethical living, going deeper and deeper into the mind, until one can see reality clearly.
- (A later-Buddhism, possibly Vedanta-influenced interpretation:) The external world is literally made of/by mind, and has no existence except to the degree that our minds create it. In reality, there is only a single, monistic, cosmic Mind (e.g., Buddha-nature), which manifests itself as this dualistic world because it has somehow forgotten its true nature and/or developed dualistic cravings. When people realize/remember that true nature, they can wake up from this delusional dream we’re all living in.
Neuroscience’s steady movement towards early Buddhist-like views is interesting to watch, though the argument for nihilism in this video still seems anecdotal and atheism-dogmatic to me: