Stephen Hawking, one of the most brilliant physicists ever to have lived, used to publicly say this every year or two, because it is perhaps the most important thing humanity should be doing but is only barely/slowly doing. Now that he is gone, I’ll repeat it: for the survival of our species, humans really need to leave this tiny, fragile little planet as quickly as possible. At national and global levels, instead of putting resources into fighting with each other and building things on this planet, we should be focusing on building space stations, fast ships, and colonies on other planets and in other solar systems. Currently, our entire species could be wiped out by global warming, over-population, nuclear war, one large epidemic, asteroid, solar flare, and on and on. We need to go and spread out, now.
- How long can a gandhabba live, and is there anything that can destroy or repel it?
- Does a gandhabba rely on a body for any reason (e.g., for nourishment)?
- How far or fast can a gandhabba travel?
- What can a gandhabba see or know about the world and its new parents?
- What cognitive capabilities (e.g., what kinds of thoughts and feelings) does a gandhabba have?
- If a gandhabba wants to join with a new baby’s body while two humans are having sex, how does it know what to do in order to combine with microscopic egg and sperm cells?
- If it is possible, as some Buddhists believe, for a previously human gandhabba to be reborn as an animal, how does it adjust itself to a non-human body, and is anything gained or lost in that process?
- If a gandhabba is a citta-santana (citta-stream), and if that is the only way in which past life memories are preserved across bodies, why do people sometimes claim to remember non-citta (i.e., vinnana and manas, which supposedly die with one’s body) things about past lives, like how something looked in the past (eye consciousness is vinnana)?
- Is it better to conceive a baby near uposatha days, or near a Buddhist temple, because there might be more virtuous gandhabbas present on those days or in that place?
If, as I understand Mahayana-based Buddhisms to teach, we are all really one big monistic/unified Mind/Being, which is supposedly happier as Itself than as a suffering human, why doesn’t one person’s becoming enlightened cause everyone to become enlightened? When the Mind learns of its delusion from one person (e.g., Gautama Buddha), why doesn’t It correct Itself and stop manifesting this world?
“Mind precedes all mental states. Mind is their chief; they are all mind-wrought” (Dhammapada 1, Acharya Buddharakkhita translation).
“Phenomena are preceded by the heart, ruled by the heart, made of the heart” (Dhammapada 1, Thanissaro Bhikkhu translation).
Here are three different ways of interpreting that famous first line of the Dhammapada:
- (A possibly animist or creationist interpretation:) There apparently exists an outside world independent of my mind, and the arrangements or configurations of most/all things in that world apparently result from the activities of human and non-human minds. For example, my house exists because many people in the past have thought that humans should live in houses for various reasons (protection from weather, animals, thieves, etc.); thought of ways to construct and sell a house in the climate, society, etc. where I live; and then constructed it. How far out/back you want to abstract this idea to nature or the universe is up to you. The Buddha didn’t offer a view about the origins of the universe.
- (A constructivist/phenomenological interpretation popular among Western Theravadists today:) Though there probably exists an outside world independent of our minds, no one can see it directly; we can each see only our own mind. Everything we see is a mind-state, a construction of our body-mind complex – mental output based on sensory input. When you think you’re seeing yourself or a world out there, all you’re really seeing are poorly measured, heavily subjectively biased mental constructs/fabrications of how the self or world might be. The only way to maybe see absolute reality is to remove one’s subjective biases through meditation and simple/ethical living, going deeper and deeper into the mind, until one can see reality clearly.
- (A later-Buddhism, possibly Vedanta-influenced interpretation:) The external world is literally made of/by mind, and has no existence except to the degree that our minds create it. In reality, there is only a single, monistic, cosmic Mind (e.g., Buddha-nature), which manifests itself as this dualistic world because it has somehow forgotten its true nature and/or developed dualistic cravings. When people realize/remember that true nature, they can wake up from this delusional dream we’re all living in.
Neuroscience’s steady movement towards early Buddhist-like views is interesting to watch, though the argument for nihilism in this video still seems anecdotal and atheism-dogmatic to me:
Looking at the very ethnically, linguistically, nationally, and philosophically fractured state of Buddhist peoples around the world today, as well as at the continued popularity of later-Buddhism philosophies like Buddha-nature, it strikes me that, even (approximately) 2,560 years after the Buddha’s parinibbana, many people still have difficulty accepting the Buddha’s teaching of Anattā and letting go of attachment to self identities.
There are so many (often-conflicting) philosophies and religions in the world. Why is yours the right one? Have you taken the time to really study and practice the world’s philosophical and religious traditions, to find the one(s) with which you actually most agree and feel are true, or do you just believe what your family or society tells you to believe? Similarly, do you believe what you want to be true, or what you think is most likely to be true?